Terminology for Educators and Service Providers on Immigration, Identity, and Education
Asylum Seeker- A person who has fled their home country as a political refugee and is seeking sanctuary in another country. Only asylum seekers who are granted refugee status are allowed to work and stay in the new country. An asylum seeker may be a displaced person or an economic migrant. Every year, around one million people seek asylum.
Comprehensive Immigration Reform (CIR) – CIR is reform of the immigration system as a whole. Some issues that are discussed in CIR are border enforcement, border security, adjusting the status of the undocumented population living in the U.S., visa reforms, among others.
Cultural/Performative Citizen- Acknowledges the cultural resilience and social reproduction in which undocumented peoples participate. They take part in the class, cultural, and linguistic knowledge and skills that establish the cultural capital of social groups in the U.S. Performative citizenship also acknowledges that folks can identify as citizens in all ways except on paper because they do not have a nine-digit social security number.
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) – DACA is program announced on June 15, 2012, by President Barack Obama that is to protect individuals who qualify from deportation and give them a work permit for 2 years. The program is renewable. Deferred Action does not provide lawful status, it provides lawful presence.
DACA-mented or (Un) DACA-mented- The term is used by undocumented individuals who are DACA recipients. DACA-mented and (un) DACA-mented (similar to Dreamer) is sometimes used as a way to navigate away from the negative connotations given to terms such as undocumented, immigrant, non-U.S. citizen and so forth.
DREAM Act – The Development Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act is a national piece of legislation proposed to provide a pathway to permanent residency and U.S. citizenship for qualified undocumented immigrant students. The national DREAM Act has been proposed several times in Congress since 2001 but has not been approved. The national DREAM Act is many times confused for state-based laws such as the Maryland Dream Act that provide access to in-state tuition for qualified undocumented immigrant students.
DREAMer– DREAMer refers to students who are undocumented and are also part of the DREAM Act movement. DREAMer is a term commonly used by students who connect with the DREAM Act movement and sometimes used as a way to navigate away from the negative connotations given to terms such as undocumented, immigrant, non-U.S. citizen and so forth.
Detention- The action of detaining/imprisoning someone or the state of being detained/imprisoned in official immigration and customs enforcement custody. Detention usually takes place inside detention centers which are jail-like spaces. The U.S. permits the indefinite detention of people until a decision is made by immigration authorities to grant a visa, release them into the community while they seek status adjustment, and or wait for their removal proceedings and eventual deportation.
Deportation- The action of deporting a person from a country. Also described as the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country. The term expulsion is often used as a synonym for deportation, though expulsion is more often used in the context of international law, while deportation is more used in national (municipal) law. There were 2.5 million deportations under the Obama administration.
Entry without Inspection- Refers to individuals who have entered the U.S. without presenting normative government accreditation (i.e. visa).
F- Visa- It is a type of visa issued to students who are not from the United States but who are attending an academic program or English language program at a U.S. college or university. These students are required to maintain a full-time course load for the entirety of their approved stay.
Generation 1.5- Refers to immigrants who were brought to the U.S as young children and identify as American. The label comes from the groups’ special place as first-generation Americans who migrate to this country during childhood and feel a strong identification with the U.S., yet are native to another country.
“Illegal”- “Illegal” (I-word) is a racially charged slur used to dehumanize and discriminate against immigrants and people of color regardless of migratory status. The I-Word is shorthand for “illegal alien,” “illegal immigrant” and other harmful terms. The Applied Research Center (ARC) and Colorlines.com, have presented the Drop the I-Word campaign to eradicate the slur “illegals” from everyday use and public discourse.
Immigrant – In the U.S. context this term refers to all people who are born outside of the United States and or who have family members who were born outside of the United States. Some people might be a first generation, second or third generation immigrant.. Some people also use the term foreign born.
Immigration Detention- The policy of holding individuals suspected of visa violations, unauthorized arrival into the U.S, and those subject to deportation and removal until a decision is made by immigration authorities to grant a visa and release them into the community, while they seek status adjustment, and or wait for their removal proceedings and eventual deportation. The U.S. permits the indefinite detention of people.
Immigration Raid- A tactic used by federal immigration authorities to enforce immigration law. Immigration Customs Enforcement (ICE) agents “round up” individuals in private homes with and many times without deportation orders/warrants. Many times ICE agents raid public spaces like grocery stores and school bus stops as a way to find undocumented immigrants who may fit the agency’s criteria for deportation. Many times immigration raids are done in locations considered sensitive locations such as hospitals and places of worship. Many immigration raids have taken place without the proper warrants and therefore have engaged in human rights violations and racial profiling.
Individual Tax Identification Number (ITIN)- A U.S. tax processing number (Tax ID), issued by the Internal Revenue Service to individuals who are required to have a taxpayer identification number but who do not have, and are not eligible to obtain, a social security number.
International Student– Most colleges and universities consider any student who currently holds a visa (M, F, or J) to be international students. Valid student visas are required to apply to the Department of Homeland Security for admission into the United States at the port of entry. Undocumented students are not international students as they do not have an M, F, or J visa. In addition, undocumented students should not have to go through the international admission process as they cannot provide an international student visa and other documentation required.
Interior Checkpoints- These checkpoints are located between 25 and 100 miles of the United States border. Their interior locations are meant to deter illegal activities that may have bypassed official border crossings along the frontier. The checkpoints are divided among nine Border Patrol sectors. There are a number of these checkpoints near the southern U.S. Mexico border as well as the northern border in states across the U.S. and Canadian borders such as Washington, New York and Maine.
Legal Permanent Resident (LPR) – Or “green card” recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the U.S.
Maryland Dream Act-The Maryland Dream Act became law on December 6, 2012. This law allows Maryland high school graduates who are undocumented immigrants, U.S. citizens, and other statuses the opportunity to qualify for the lowest tuition rates at their public colleges and universities upon meeting certain eligibility requirements and submitting required documentation. This law applies to all future semesters, starting with the 2013 winter session.
Mixed-Immigration-Status Family– Refers to students that are either: 1) undocumented, but have family members that are U.S. residents or U.S. citizens or 2) are U.S. residents or U.S. citizens but have family members that are undocumented and or U.S. residents or U.S. citizens.
Naturalization- The process by which U.S. citizenship is conferred upon a lawful permanent resident after they fulfill the requirements established by Congress in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). The general requirements for administrative naturalization include: a period of continuous residence and physical presence in the United States; an ability to read, write, and speak English; a knowledge and understanding of U.S. history and government; good moral character; attachment to the principles of the U.S. Constitution; and a favorable disposition toward the U.S. Immigrants face several barriers in this process; some include lack of access to lawyers, financial means for filing fees, time to study for tests and/or attend appointments.
Non-US-Citizen – The non-citizen category applies to people born outside of the U.S. and who have not applied for or have been granted citizenship. Permanent residents also fall into this category.
Non- Immigrant Visa- Issued to the citizens of other countries coming to the U.S. temporarily. Some of the nonimmigrant categories are students, tourists, treaty investors, foreign government officials, etc.
Overstayed Visa- Refers to individuals who have stayed in the U.S. after their tourist, visitor, or student visa has expired. A person overstaying their visa becomes undocumented.
Refugee- A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster.
Temporary Protected Status (TPS) – A temporary immigration status granted to nationals of certain countries who are already in the U.S. and who cannot safely return to their home country due to things like war, a natural disaster, and other extraordinary conditions. Some countries include El Salvador, Haiti, Nepal, Honduras, Nicaragua, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, Syria, and Yemen.
T-Visa- T Nonimmigrant Status (T visa) is a set aside for individuals who are or have been victims of human trafficking. It protects victims of human trafficking and allows victims to remain in the United States to assist in an investigation or prosecution of human trafficking.
U.S. Citizen- Individuals who obtain U.S. citizenship by birth in the U.S. or by process of naturalization. Citizens obtain a Social Security Number, have the right to vote, are able to use federal benefits, and are protected from deportation.
Unauthorized– This term is used to highlight the fact that all peoples have documents (i.e. birth certificate, a form of identification card, and so forth), but who may be residing in the U.S. without legal authorization, thus unauthorized.
Undocumented– Undocumented refers to people who are not U.S. citizens or Permanent Residents of the United States, who do not hold a visa to reside in the U.S. and who have not applied for or are eligible for legal residency in the U.S.
UndocuTerp- UndocuTerp refers to students who are undocumented and are also part of the University of Maryland, College Park community. The term UndocuTerp is commonly used by students who connect with the UMD community (Terp) and their undocumented identity. This term is sometimes used as a way to navigate away from the negative connotations given to terms such as undocumented, immigrant, non-U.S. citizen and so forth.
U-Visa- An immigration benefit that can be sought by victims of certain crimes who are currently assisting or have previously assisted law enforcement in the investigation or prosecution of a crime, or who are likely to be helpful in the investigation or prosecution of criminal activity.
General Questions and Concerns about UMD’s ICE Contract
The following answers were provided by UMD’s Office of Strategic Communications
What active contracts does the university have with the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency?
- The university currently has one active academic contract with the Homeland Security Investigations Division of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. The contract covers up to 25, two-day training sessions where university researchers present terrorism-related research findings to homeland security investigators who are sent to U.S. Embassies abroad. The contract runs through March 31, 2022.
- It is important to note that U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement is made up of three divisions: Management and Administration; Homeland Security Investigations, and Enforcement and Removal Operations. This contract is with the Homeland Security Investigations division, not the Enforcement and Removal Operations division.
What does the contract entail?
- The contract is for the university’s National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) to provide cultural competency and counterterrorism training to homeland security special agents who are stationed at embassies abroad and who will work with the interagency Embassy team on counterterrorism investigations. START is to provide at least two (up to five), two-day training seminars each year for five years to help equip these investigators with unbiased, science-based knowledge on the origins, ideologies and methods associated with international terrorism, as well as cultural awareness training.
- The training seminars feature empirical research on terrorism, based on START’s thirteen years of unclassified, academic inquiry on the subject, and more than 160 completed and ongoing research projects. Drawing from the findings of those projects, the training seminars are created and led by START personnel. Like START’s research agenda, the training seminars are not specific to any one ideology or ethno-linguistic group, but look at the phenomenon of terrorism irrespective of the ideology that motivates it.
- While the training seminar focuses on providing homeland security investigators with an overview of terrorism and the nature of the terrorist threat in their regions of responsibility and worldwide, the longest block of instruction is dedicated to providing those officers with cultural awareness training, which addresses topics such as cultural sensitivities, naming conventions and common social norms that inform interpersonal cross-cultural communication and are relevant to law enforcement-citizen encounters.
Who participates in these trainings?
- The training that UMD is providing is for homeland security investigators who are stationed at embassies abroad and who work with the interagency Embassy team on counterterrorism investigations. The training is led by William Braniff, Director of START, who has made it his personal mission over the last 13 years to displace racist and Islamophobic counterterrorism ‘training’ by taking every opportunity to provide training that is based on high-quality, objective research and subject matter expertise – first at the Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, and for the last seven years at START.
How did this contract get obtained?
- Given START’s past performance and reputation as a leader in the academic study of global terrorism, in June 2017, the Department of Homeland Security invited START to provide a quote and statement of work for the Homeland Security Investigation division’s Visa Security Program Visa Security Investigations Course. START submitted a quote and statement of work and was awarded the contract.
Why does UMD provide training to U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement? Will UMD enter into any future contracts with them?
- The university’s values of diversity and inclusion, tolerance and intellectual freedom, and our commitment to our students, remain unwavering. As a public research institution it is our mission to advance knowledge in areas of importance to the state, the nation, and the world using research-based, data-driven and nonpartisan methods. This includes working with a variety of federal agencies.
- START aims to provide counterterrorism policymakers and practitioners, such as the homeland security investigators who partake in this training, with the highest quality, data-driven research findings on the human causes and consequences of terrorism in an effort to ensure that homeland security policies and operations reflect these science-based, non-partisan, non-politicized understandings about human behaviors.
- Without the involvement of nonpartisan research universities, contracts like these could instead be awarded to groups and organizations with a clear political agenda. It is because of our values of diversity and inclusion, tolerance and intellectual freedom, the role of science in policy and practice, and our commitment to our students, that we do the work that we do, in the way that we do it.
Has UMD had contracts with U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement in the past?
- The university has had prior academic contracts with U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. The Maryland Fire and Rescue Institute at the University of Maryland conducted training programs on the storage, labeling and incident handling of hazardous materials. As an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-recognized program, the Maryland Fire and Rescue Institute has offered this training for a variety of federal agencies and law enforcement agencies, including the FBI, Secret Service, NIST, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, and U.S. military operating across the globe.
- The contract was for eight, 5-day, and 40-hour safety training courses for customs officials to provide information on how to detect, identify and handle any hazardous substances entering the United States from abroad. The contract expired in September 2018.
What is the universities and/or University of Maryland Police Department’s relationship with the Enforcement and Removal Operations division of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement?
- The University of Maryland Police Department (UMPD) does not conduct inquiries about an individual’s citizenship in the regular course of their work. The only exception to this is when UMPD inquiries about an individual’s citizenship in order to make mandated consular notifications to an individual’s home country. Consular notifications are required by federal law as a part of the 1963 Vienna Convention on Consular Relations.
- In terms of the Concurrent Jurisdiction Agreement that the University of Maryland has with Prince George’s County, UMPD’s policies are consistent whether they are on campus or off. Similar to Prince George’s County’s procedures, University of Maryland officers do not honor U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement detainers without a warrant. However, UMPD does not have the legal authority to prevent U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement from conducting operations within the City of College Park.
- We value our diverse campus community. Every day members of the University of Maryland Police Department work tirelessly to ensure the safety and security of our campus community. UMPD is a service-oriented agency. Our priority is in keeping our campus safe and being a resource for those who need help.
For more information about this conversation take a look a the following articles:
- UMD’s ICE Contract: These Two DC Area Universities Have Large Contracts with ICE
- Stories beneath the shell: Undocumented students say university support programs are helpful but not easily accessible
- Who are undocumented students?
- What does UndocuTerp mean?
- What is the Maryland Dream Act?
- What does the Maryland Dream Act do?
- Who is eligible to apply for the Maryland Dream Act?
- If a student is eligible for the Maryland Dream Act, how do they apply for it?
- What is Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)?
- Who is eligible for DACA?
- If I am granted DACA, how long can I have it?
- As an undocumented student or DACA student, am I eligible for federal student aid?
- Are there allies or organizations that support undocumented students in MD?
- Am I eligible for admission to Maryland? If so, how do I apply?
1. Who are undocumented students?
Undocumented refers to people who are not U.S. citizens or Permanent Residents of the United States, who do not hold a visa to reside in the U.S. and who have not applied for or are eligible for current program available to attain legal residency in the U.S. There is no federal law that prohibits undocumented students from attending a higher education institution. Undocumented people are able to attend K-12, community colleges and four year public institutions.
2. What does UndocuTerp mean?
UndocuTerp refers to students who are undocumented and are also part of the University of Maryland, College Park community. The term UndocuTerp is commonly used by students who connect with the UMD community (Terp) and their undocumented identity. This term is sometimes used as a way to navigate away from the negative connotations given to terms such as undocumented, immigrant, non-U.S. citizen and so forth.
3. What is the Maryland Dream Act?
The Maryland Dream Act became law on December 6, 2012, and applies to all future semesters, starting with the 2013 winter session and beyond. MD Dream Act is a tuition equity law and allows Maryland high school graduates who are undocumented immigrants the opportunity to qualify for the lowest tuition rates at their public colleges and universities upon meeting certain eligibility requirements and submitting required documentation. The Act applies in all 24 jurisdictions within the state of Maryland – every county in the state of Maryland, plus the city of Baltimore.
4. What does the Maryland Dream Act do?
This law enables certain undocumented high school graduates to obtain a post-secondary education at an affordable price. First, if students meet the requirements of the law, they can qualify for the in-county rate at the Maryland community college in jurisdiction from which they graduated from high school. Second, students who earn their first 60 credits or an associate’s degree from a community college and continue to meet the requirements of the Dream Act are eligible for the in-state rate at a four-year public university in Maryland.
5. Who is eligible to apply for the Maryland Dream Act?
To be eligible for the Maryland DREAM Act, students who are undocumented immigrants must have:
– Attended a Maryland high school for at least three years, starting no earlier than the 2005-2006 school year
– Graduated from a Maryland high school or received a GED no earlier than the 2007-2008 school year
– Registered at a Maryland community college within four years of high school graduation or receiving a Maryland GED
For more information please visit the Registrar’s Office – https://www.registrar.umd.edu/Residency/resreclassmddreamact.html
6. If a student is eligible for the Maryland Dream Act, how do they apply for it?
Students who are eligible to apply for the Maryland Dream Act must submit the following forms to the Enrollment Services Office by the deadline:
– A signed affidavit vowing to file an application to become a permanent resident within 30 days after becoming eligible to apply.
– If male, proof that student registered with the U.S. Selective Service. Instructions about how to register can be found on the U.S. Selective Service System website. Students can register for Selective Service at any U.S. Post Office. A receipt from the post office that indicates that application was submitted will be accepted as proof.
– Copies of Maryland state income tax returns filed by the student or the student’s parent(s) or legal guardian. This income state tax return will state Form 502 or Form 503 at the top in bold print. The tax returns must be signed and must be from:
– Each of the three years the student attended high school,
– Each year that the student attended community college, and
– Each year between high school and community college.
– An official copy of the student’s high school transcript that shows his or her graduation from a public or nonpublic high school in Maryland. If a student got a Maryland GED, they must submit a copy of their Maryland high school transcript and a copy of their GED.
For more information please visit the Registrar’s Office – https://www.registrar.umd.edu/Residency/resreclassmddreamact.html
7. What is Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)?
On June 5, 2012, President Barack Obama issued an Executive Order that the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) would not deport certain undocumented youth who came to the United States as children. Certain undocumented people who came to the United States as children and meet several key guidelines may request consideration of deferred action for a period of two years, subject to renewal, and would then be eligible for work authorization. This action is separate from the Maryland DREAM Act.
DACA advisory post Obama administration
8. Who is eligible for DACA?
– Were under the age of 31 as of June 15, 2012;
– Came to the United States before reaching turning 16;
– Have continuously resided in the United States since June 15, 2007, up to the present time;
– Were physically present in the United States on June 15, 2012, and at the time of making your request for consideration of deferred action with USCIS;
– Had no lawful status on June 15, 2012;
– Are currently in school, have graduated or obtained a certificate of completion from high school, have obtained a general education development (GED) certificate, or are an honorably discharged veteran of the Coast Guard or Armed Forces of the United States; and
– Have not been convicted of a felony, significant misdemeanor, or three or more other misdemeanors, and do not otherwise pose a threat to national security or public safety.
DACA advisory post Obama administration
9. If I am granted DACA, how long can I have it?
Up until the Supreme Court of the United States makes a decision on whether the program will remain. Currently people still have access to renew and should ASAP. For more information and to stay updated on that please follow https://www.informedimmigrant.com/guides/daca-renewals-2020/
– If you need help with renewing your application or help paying for your application check out the information below.
10. As an undocumented student or DACA student, am I eligible for federal student aid?
Undocumented students, including DACA recipients are not eligible for federal financial aid. However, they may be eligible for state or college financial aid, or private scholarships. To learn more about access to the Maryland State Financial Aid Application go to their website here and take a look at the user guide here. If you have specific questions for attending the University of Maryland contact our Financial Aid liasion working with undocumented and immigrant students
– Financial Aid | website
– Malina Heng | 0102 Lee Building | email@example.com | 301-314-9859
For more information on scholarships/resources take a look at our folder with financial resources here.
11. Are there allies or organizations that support undocumented students in MD?
– Casa de Maryland is a community organization that strives to improve the quality of life and fight for equal treatment of low-income immigrant communities. http://wearecasa.org/
– United We Dream (UWD) is the largest immigrant youth-led organization in the nation. UWD’s powerful nonpartisan network is made up of over 100,000 immigrant youth and allies and 55 affiliate organizations in 26 states. UWD organizes and advocates for the dignity and fair treatment of immigrant youth and families, regardless of immigration status. http://unitedwedream.org/
– UndocuBlack Network | https://undocublack.org/
– NAKASEC | https://nakasec.org/
– National TPS Alliance | https://www.nationaltpsalliance.org/
– Cosecha MD | https://www.facebook.com/CosechaMD/
12. Am I eligible for admission to Maryland? If so, how do I apply?
Yes, all students regardless of their immigration status with interest in attending the University of Maryland are encouraged to apply for admission. If you are a first time student, you should seek to complete the freshman application for admission. If you are transferring from another institution, and will have completed 12 credits or more, you should seek to complete the transfer application for admission. Please visit: http://registrar.umd.edu/resreclass.html for more information on transferring and or talk to our undocumented student working group liaison member in the office of undergraduate admissions: Adrian Rodriguez | firstname.lastname@example.org | 301.314.8385
SLUDGE: They’re Sanctuary Jurisdictions, so Why Are They Contracting with ICE?